Small animal models for testing therapeutics to combat COVID-19
With support from the UC Davis Office of Research, UC Davis School of Medicine, and UC Davis School of Veterinary Medicine, we are performing studies with SARS-CoV-2 in hamsters and humanized ACE2-receptor expressing mice with a goal of finding therapies that reduce disease.
In collaboration with Kent Lloyd of the Mouse Biology Program, we are testing new polygenic humanized mouse models of COVID-19. This project uses newly acquired equipment in our animal biosafety level-3 facility, funded via NIH, and includes a microCT for whole animal imaging.
Antiviral drug discovery
As part of the University of California National Lab Antiviral Treatments Targeting All Coronaviruses and Key RNA viruses (ATTACK) Consortium, we have a shared goal of developing a comprehensive solution for the rapid and rigorous discovery and development of antiviral drugs to help solve the current COVID-19 crisis and prevent the next pandemic. The ATTACK Consortium integrates expertise and resources from six University of California (UC) campuses at Los Angeles, San Diego, Davis, Berkeley, Irvine, and Riverside; two National Labs, Lawrence Livermore and Sandia, and 13 industry partners. Organized into five key integrated research project areas and four scientific cores, the consortium provides a rigorous and efficient pipeline that starts with discovery and ends with highly effective direct acting antiviral therapies that have met all the needed pre-clinical testing to enter human trials.
Safer arbovirus vaccines
In a project funded by the National Institutes of Health NIAID, we are developing safer live attenuated vaccines for chikungunya and Venezuelan equine encephalitis viruses using virus variants that mutate less frequently and therefore develop fewer mutations that confer virulence.
Together with the California National Primate Research Center and Emergent, Biosolutions Inc., we are assessing safety and correlates of protection for a candidate chikungunya virus-like particle vaccine in non-human primates.
Emerging and re-emerging viruses in California
We are genetically characterizing contemporary St. Louis encephalitis virus circulating in mosquitoes in California and performing experimental studies to evaluate viral, host, and environmental factors that promoted the re-emergence and establishment of St. Louis encephalitis virus in California since 2015. This work is funded by the CDC Center of Excellence in Vector Borne Diseases for the Pacific Region of the United States.
Responding to emerging infectious diseases
Together with partners in the One Health Institute, we are part of the NIH funded Centers for Research in Emerging Infectious Diseases (CREID) network. Our EpiCenter for Emerging Infectious Disease Intelligence (EEIDI) is focused on advancing understanding of viral emergence from wildlife in urbanizing environments in Peru and Uganda.
Infectious disease epidemiology
With the Epicenter for Disease Dynamics we are studying the impacts of environmental change on the epidemiology, ecology, and evolution of zoonotic diseases in Southeast Asia via an Ecology and Evolution of Infectious Diseases project funded by the National Science Foundation.
Intrahost genetic diversity and arboviral disease
We are studying how genetically diverse viral populations of chikungunya virus generated by error-prone viral replication influence mosquito-borne virus transmission and disease.
Alphavirus mutation rates
We are performing studies to measure the mutation rate of three alphaviruses using a novel PCR-independent assay that captures lethal mutations. We will use mutation rate measurements to understand alphavirus molecular evolution by defining constancy of and environmental factors that affect it, which can inform the potential for viral escape from countermeasures like drug treatment.
Enhanced arbovirus surveillance
We are developing novel cost-effective approaches to detect arbovirus circulation in mosquitoes in California based on deposition of arbovirus RNA by wild mosquitoes during sugar feeding.
Recent Past Projects
Influenza virus surveillance
As part of a NIH NIAID Centers for Excellence in Influenza Research and Surveillance (CEIRS) project, we perform surveillance for influenza virus in birds and marine mammals in California.
Non human primate model of Zika virus
Together with the California National Primate Research Center including Koen Van Rompay, we generated a pregnant macaque model of human Zika virus disease. In addition to using the model to understand human ZIKV infection dynamics and disease with potential effects on fetal development and transfusion transmission, we are testing candidate vaccines and therapies.
- We partnered with the Food and Drug Administration to investigate which tissues Zika virus targets in non-human primates to inform FDA policies on the risk of Zika virus transmission through infected tissue products.
- Together with Vitalant Research Institute (formerly Blood Systems Research Institute)/University of California San Francisco, we are characterizing blood transfusion-transmission of Zika virus in macaques to establish minimal requirements for Zika virus blood or organ transfusion-transmission and to characterize pathogen reduction approaches to interrupt transfusion or organ transmission.
- We are also developing a project to determine whether mutations in emerging Zika virus are responsible for fetal neurologic disease and death using the macaque model. Defining the viral determinants of clinical Zika virus outcome in macaques could be translated to candidate vaccines or therapies to protect mothers and their infants against the most severe forms of Zika virus disease.